This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Gene Testing In the Doctors Office (2009, December 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-12-gene-doctors-office.html Verigene is the first nanotechnology device that uses a combination of nanotechnology and microfluidics housed in a plastic cartridge to extract DNA from a blood sample and screen it for the relevant sequences.People respond to drugs differently, due to the genetic variations in enzymes that metabolize some of the most common prescribed drugs. By using the Verigene device, doctors and hospitals can isolate a patient’s DNA and analyze it within an hour or two. The results collected can then be used to prescribe a drug that would be most beneficial to the patient.The technology for detecting variations in patients has been around for years but the process can take days or weeks and is very expensive. Doctors would have to send a sample of the patient’s blood or saliva to a lab where the DNA is extracted and analyzed. In the meantime the doctor would prescribe medication to a patient not knowing its effectiveness until the test results return from the lab. A patient’s blood is injected into a disposable cartridge that houses a system of microfluidics chambers holding the reagents for chemical reactions. A glass slide dotted with DNA is also contained in the disposable cartridge. Once the disposable cartridge is placed into the Verigene instrument, reagents in the chambers are mixed, triggering a series of reactions. DNA is then extracted from the white blood cells and everything else is washed away. A DNA solution passes over the glass slide and targeted DNA binds to spots on the slide that have been stamped with DNA sequences that are complementary to the target sequence. Gold nanoparticles are then sandwiched to the other end of the DNA fragments and coated with silver, allowing it to be easily detected when light hits it. The Verigene system can also detect respiratory viruses, such as the H1N1 flu. Nanosphere has been installing their systems in medical centers, community hospitals and research centers, for the past month. The device is one of many microfluidics technologies in development for genetic testing in a doctor’s office or hospital while the patient waits for the results.More information, visit: Nanosphere Inc.Via: Technology Review© 2009 PhysOrg.com Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — A portable instrument manufactured by Nanosphere Inc. and recently approved by the FDA, can detect genetic variations in blood that alter the effectiveness of some drugs. This disposable cartridge can detect genetic variations from blood samples. DNA is isolated from white blood cells and captured on a glass slide within the cartridge. Credit: Nanosphere, Inc. Rapid DNA Detection Quickly Diagnoses Infections
(PhysOrg.com) — When you think about the design team for an ultra-fuel efficient vehicle, on that can get more than one thousand miles per gallon of gas; you probably picture a professional design lab outfitted with the most modern technology available and the best minds in the industry, not a group of school children. © 2010 PhysOrg.com UBC Engineers Create Vehicle that Travels from Vancouver to Halifax on a Gallon of Gas Nevertheless, that is the case. A group of students in the United Kingdom pulled from regional schools and universities recently participated in the annual Mileage Marathon Challenge near Leicester, England. Though, many of the students did work on the prototypes with the help of design or engineering firms. The goal of the challenge is to create a vehicle with a new record in as mileage efficiency as the vehicles race around the track. The cars, which are allows the cars to coast some of the way, sets a minimum speed of 15 miles per hour.Two of the cars came in at over 1000 miles per gallon. The winning car of the competition has a recorded fuel efficiency of about 1,980 miles per gallon and it was drive by Sam Chapman-Hill age 14. The car weighed about 100 pounds and was constructed primarily of plastics that were reinforced by glass. Another car, driven by an 11-year-old girl named Kitty Foster, reached 1,325 miles per gallon with a design that featured a Cambridge Design Partnership oxygen concentrator and micro-diesel engine along with some smart technology. The use of a GPS tracking system helped her to decide when to put the pedal to the metal and when to coast.While no direct prototypes are likely to come out of the race and onto the production line they do give car manufacturers a lot to think about. After all, if an 11-year-old can design a car that is this fuel-efficient then why can’t professional engineering and design teams come up with a car that can do better than 40 miles per gallon on the highway? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: Students design cars the get 1000 MPG+ (2011, June 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-students-cars-mpg.html
© 2010 PhysOrg.com (PhysOrg.com) — Working out of Tokyo University, scientists in the Department of Materials Science, have developed a new metal alloy that unlike other “superelastic” alloys can resume its original shape in temperatures ranging from -196 to 249 degrees Celsius. Prior to this discovery, such alloys were only able to revert to their original form in the much narrower range of -20 to 80 degrees Celsius. They have published their findings in the journal Science. Superelastic iron alloy could be used for heart and brain surgery Citation: Japanese material scientists develop new superelastic alloy (2011, July 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-japanese-material-scientists-superelastic-alloy.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: Superelastic Effect in Polycrystalline Ferrous Alloys, Science 1 July 2011: Vol. 333 no. 6038 pp. 68-71. DOI:10.1126/science.1202232ABSTRACTIn superelastic alloys, large deformation can revert to a memorized shape after removing the stress. However, the stress increases with increasing temperature, which limits the practical use over a wide temperature range. Polycrystalline Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloys show a small temperature dependence of the superelastic stress because of a small transformation entropy change brought about by a magnetic contribution to the Gibbs energies. For one alloy composition, the superelastic stress varies by 0.53 megapascal/°C over a temperature range from –196 to 240°C. Superelastic alloys are metals that revert naturally back to their original shape after being bent or deformed by outside forces once those forces are removed, and are generally created by mixing two or more other metals together in certain combinations. In this new effort, the research team added a small amount of nickel to an iron based alloy, which according to lead author Toshihiro Omori, in an email interview with Reuters, says makes their product far more elastic than anything else out there. He also said that because the ingredients for the new metal are plentiful, the resultant alloy should be very cheap to produce.The reason that superelastic allows are able to revert to their prior shape is due to their unique crystal structure that allows all of the atoms it’s made of to shift as one when a force is applied, as opposed to normal metals where the force is diffused through the crystal structure changing it’s composition.Superelastic alloys are used in many applications such as eyeglasses, antennas, and medical tools and equipment. Omori, says he hopes that this new alloy, because of its ability to revert in virtually any real world temperature conditions, can be used in buildings to protect against earthquake damage, or in other applications where things get hot under stress, such as in cars, airplanes and spacecraft.Because many tall buildings are supported by metal beams, the thinking goes, if the those metal beams were made of a superelastic alloy, they would be able to snap back to their original positions after each gyration of the ground, rather than suffering compound trauma as the quake continues, making it much less likely that the building would crumble or fall.
Giant Haast’s eagle attacking New Zealand moa. Artwork: John Megahan. Copyright: PLoS Biology. Via Wikipedia. Scientists use fossilized feces to reconstruct moa diet More information: Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization, Morten Erik Allentoft, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1314972111AbstractThe extinction of New Zealand’s moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) followed the arrival of humans in the late 13th century and was the final event of the prehistoric Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions. Determining the state of the moa populations in the pre-extinction period is fundamental to understanding the causes of the event. We sampled 281 moa individuals and combined radiocarbon dating with ancient DNA analyses to help resolve the extinction debate and gain insights into moa biology. The samples, which were predominantly from the last 4,000 years preceding the extinction, represent four sympatric moa species excavated from five adjacent fossil deposits. We characterized the moa assemblage using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers developed specifically for moa. Although genetic diversity differed significantly among the four species, we found that the millennia preceding the extinction were characterized by a remarkable degree of genetic stability in all species, with no loss of heterozygosity and no shifts in allele frequencies over time. The extinction event itself was too rapid to be manifested in the moa gene pools. Contradicting previous claims of a decline in moa before Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, our findings indicate that the populations were large and stable before suddenly disappearing. This interpretation is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our analyses consolidate the disappearance of moa as the most rapid, human-facilitated megafauna extinction documented to date. (Phys.org) —A new study conducted by an international team of researchers points to humans as the cause of the sudden extinction of all species of moa in New Zealand approximately 600 years ago. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes DNA testing they carried out, along with archeological evidence, which they claim, proves that humans were the cause of the demise of the large flightless birds.
Credit: xiaphias/Wikipedia This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org Common biomarkers of sleep debt found in humans, rats, study finds (Phys.org)—Ideally, we would get the appropriate amount of sleep to keep our bodies healthy, but in our modern society things like jet lag, extended work hours, or using electronic devices cause disruptions in our sleep/wake cycle often leading to fewer hours of quality sleep. Most people suffer from chronic sleep restriction rather than complete deprivation, but there are very few studies that explore the effects of sleep restriction. Amita Sahgal and Aalim Weljie from the University of Pennsylvania and Peter Meerlo, from the University of Groningen in The Netherlands, investigated at how chronic sleep restriction affects the body’s metabolic processes. Their work is published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. More information: “Oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3 are cross-species markers of sleep debt.” PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print February 9, 2015www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/02/03/1417432112AbstractSleep is an essential biological process that is thought to have a critical role in metabolic regulation. In humans, reduced sleep duration has been associated with risk for metabolic disorders, including weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying effects of sleep loss is only in its nascent stages. In this study we used rat and human models to simulate modern-day conditions of restricted sleep and addressed cross-species consequences via comprehensive metabolite profiling. Serum from sleep-restricted rats was analyzed using polar and nonpolar methods in two independent datasets (n = 10 per study, 3,380 measured features, 407 identified). A total of 38 features were changed across independent experiments, with the majority classified as lipids (18 from 28 identified). In a parallel human study, 92 metabolites were identified as potentially significant, with the majority also classified as lipids (32 of 37 identified). Intriguingly, two metabolites, oxalic acid and diacylglycerol 36:3, were robustly and quantitatively reduced in both species following sleep restriction, and recovered to near baseline levels after sleep restriction (P < 0.05, false-discovery rate < 0.2). Elevated phospholipids were also noted after sleep restriction in both species, as well as metabolites associated with an oxidizing environment. In addition, polar metabolites reflective of neurotransmitters, vitamin B3, and gut metabolism were elevated in sleep-restricted humans. These results are consistent with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and disruptions of the circadian clock. The findings provide a potential link between known pathologies of reduced sleep duration and metabolic dysfunction, and potential biomarkers for sleep loss.
New approach to dynamically tune how a catalyst operates More information: L. C. Buelens et al. Super-dry reforming of methane intensifies CO2 utilization via Le Chateliers principle, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aah7161AbstractEfficient CO2 transformation from a waste product to carbon source for chemicals and fuels will require reaction conditions that effect its reduction. We develop a “super-dry” CH4 reforming reaction for enhanced CO production from CH4 and CO2. We used Ni/MgAl2O4 as a CH4 reforming catalyst, Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 as a solid oxygen carrier, and CaO/Al2O3 as a CO2 sorbent. The isothermal coupling of these three different processes resulted in higher CO production compared with conventional dry reforming by avoiding back reactions with water. The reduction of iron oxide was intensified by CH4 conversion to syngas over Ni and by CO2 extraction and storage as CaCO3. CO2 is then used for iron reoxidation and CO production exploiting equilibrium shifts effected with inert gas sweeping (Le Chatelier’s Principle). Super-dry reforming utilizes up to three CO2 molecules per CH4 and offers a high CO space-time yield of 7.5 mmol CO per second per kilogram of iron at at 1023 Kelvin. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Researchers from Ghent University in Belgium, led by Dr. Vladimir Galvita have developed a nickel-catalyzed carbon reforming reaction scheme that involves the use of calcium oxide as a carbon dioxide sorbent and iron oxide as a solid oxygen carrier. This process does not involve temperature swings, allowing for better carbon monoxide production, and their two-flow system eliminates unwanted back reactions. Their work appears in a recent issue of Science.In an effort to decrease CO2 production, scientists have developed methods to convert CO2 to helpful starting materials that can be used to produce synthetic energy sources. These methods involve reducing CO2. The most commercially feasible method is a process called dry reforming of methane, which produces syngases, CO and H2. This reaction needs to be a “dry” reaction because in the presence of water, the more energetically favored water gas shift reaction occurs. In this reaction carbon monoxide reacts with water to re-form carbon dioxide. Eliminating water from these reactions has proved to be an active area of research.In the current study, Buelens et al. used calcium oxide as a CO2 sorbent in which calcium carbonate is formed. This has several benefits that that has allowed a higher carbon monoxide yield and an opportunity to remove water that is formed from the oxidation of methane. First, from an economic and practical standpoint, because CO2 is removed in situ, the feed gas can be of lower stock quality. Secondly, the formation of calcium carbonate can be coupled with methane reformation and iron oxide reduction resulting in a more energetically favorable process. Then, when calcium carbonate decomposes into CO2 and CaO, the carbon dioxide is reduced to CO over the iron oxide oxygen carrier. According to the authors, it is at this point that the feed is switched to inert gas to regenerate the system. They obtained a 45% higher CO yield, but this yield could be even higher by optimizing conditions. The higher efficiency of this reaction is due in large part by employing Le Chatlier’s Principle. Importantly, their two-flow reaction set-up seems to have some versatility that prior dry reforming reactions lacked either by changing the gas feedstock ratios or by changing to a multi-reactor configuration.The applications of this technique, according to lead author, Lukas Buelens is that “with this process, we intensify the conversion of CO2 by making maximal use of CH4 as reducing gas. The generated CO can be used directly or combined with a green H2 source for the production of chemicals or fuels.”Additionally, their initial flow system uses a less expensive nickel catalyst because carbon deposition has been eliminated. Their system is more efficient for CO2 utilization than prior dry reforming reactions and may serve as a model for optimized CO2 conversion. Citation: ‘Super-dry’ reforming reaction converts greenhouse gases to useful intermediates (2016, November 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-11-super-dry-reforming-reaction-greenhouse-gases.html Journal information: Science © 2016 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A new “super-dry” carbon dioxide reforming reaction consumes two waste products, carbon dioxide and methane, and produces gases that can be used to make synthetic fuels and other important products. Credit: L. C. Buelens et al.
The sister duo’s collection can be best described as red carpet. With classy headgear, their gowns were a delight to watch. The Royal Ascot races were the inspiration behind the collection that had plenty of flounces and ruffles in ivory. he silhouettes were sharp, with handloom organzas and layers adding to the appeal. Models walked inpencil dresses, backless jumpsuits with ruffled neck and back, ruffled side dresses, organza dress with peplum, pencil skirt and side slit, playsuit, halter gowns and princess gowns.
It will be a journey down the memory lane for Delhi Tourism as the corporation celebrates 25 years of hosting the International Mango Festival at Dilli Haat, Pitampura this year from 28th – 30th June.The festival was organised for the first time in 1988 in association with Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, in the Mango Orchards of Saharanpur wherein a large variety of mangoes were showcased for the public viewing. In an organized tour arranged by Delhi Tourism, about 100 foreign and domestic tourists were taken to Saharanpur to participate in the festival. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Encouraged with the response, Delhi Tourism hosted its first ever Mango Festival in 1991 at Talkatora Indoor Stadium, in association with Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India & APEDA. Over the years the scale of the festival has widened and the festival has gained tremendous popularity. More than 500 varieties of mangoes on display, fun filled activities such as mango eating competition for men & women, slogan writing competition, quiz competition for children, sale of fresh mangoes and mango based products, live demonstration of Mango drinks such as ‘Aam Panna’, Mango Squash etc. makes this event a package full of fun and entertainment for adults and children alike. Mango Festival is an eagerly awaited annual event, wherein, the king of fruits, mango is celebrated in different forms and ways. Mango as a fruit is loved and enjoyed by one and all and Delhi Tourism makes sure it organises this festival every year.
The show is a discourse between the artistes spanning two different generations and their unique way of engaging with space and material, unbound by conventional art practice or the preconceived language of academic expression. Kolleri’s works in copper wire weave together, lost and found objects with a history and archaeology, being assembled in a new time and space to have a different contextual meaning and value. Puneet on the other hand, weaves in different materials to create an autobiographical work – personal, viscera and stirring. Meshing together materials unconventionally, they create a new value to the final product and it is one of the main preoccupations of both the artistes. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’They share a passion for the material they engage with and rejoice in the process of creation, allowing the material to master them and in the process procreate a form that is abstracted from the materials themselves. This new character of the work is the artistes’ intense involvement in the process of creation.The shape that things will take is at once, abstract and primordial. As Valsan puts it ‘Knowing is in action’. For both artistes, Puneet in his act of blending, sewing and amalgamating different materials and Valsan, in his process of weaving in and out of spaces and wires, the process of manual creation becomes the aim and the resultant artwork, only a consequence. Kolleri has participated in solo and group shows and lectured throughout India, Europe and the United States.Kaushik, who lives in New Delhi has conducted a wide variety of art workshops in India, Paris, California, Singapore, Dubai, Japan and the most recent one being at Stuttgart, Germany .When: 22August -30 September Where: Gallery Espace, 16, Community Center, New Friends Colony