The Croatian National Tourist Board and the Osijek-Baranja County Tourist Board, in cooperation with the Ministry of Tourism, organized a study trip for Spanish sports and tourism journalists on the occasion of the Davis Cup match between Croatia and Spain.The study tour program began on Friday, February 1, when reporters covered the first tennis match. In the following days, in addition to tennis matches, they visited the Kopački rit Nature Park, Belje and Erdut wineries, the Milutin Milanković Cultural and Scientific Center in Dalj, St. Peter’s Cathedral and the Lipizzaner stud farm in Đakovo. The importance of tourist promotion through sports events is also emphasized by the director of the CNTB Head Office, Ratomir Ivičić. “Sports events and meetings, especially when it comes to national teams, are an excellent opportunity for additional tourism promotion. Osijek and Slavonians in general were really top hosts, and our wish was to bring it all closer to the Spaniards, and to show them that Croatia is much more than a summer vacation destination of sun and sea. I am sure that the tourist traffic on the continent will be more pronounced, especially in the segment of extending the tourist season outside the main summer months.”, Said director Ivicic.Spanish journalists participating in the study trip are Juan Lopez Corcoles, Galo Martin, Oscar Checa, Laura Marta Loriente and Juan Solsona Magri. Some of them were already in Croatia when they visited Dubrovnik, Split, Hvar, Opatija and Istria, but they all visited the continental part of Croatia for the first time. As they said, they were delighted by the diversity of our country, the beauty of nature and the rich cultural and historical heritage. After touring Slavonia and Baranja, Spanish journalists will visit Zagreb today, the last day of the study tour program, where they will see various city landmarks such as the Zagreb Cathedral, Dolac, the Upper Town, and the Museum of Broken Relationships.World in one country campaignThe winners of the prize game, which was organized on the social network Facebook, especially for the Spanish market, also took part in sightseeing in Slavonia and Baranja. The prize game was realized within the project “World in one country”. It is a project that communicates the diversity and richness of Croatian heritage, the similarity of which, through attractive photographs, is compared with world-renowned sights. The prize game achieved excellent results, ie a reach of 100 thousand people and more than 2400 likes, and more than 300 participants participated in the prize game itself. On the topic of Slavonia and Baranja and the presentation of the tourist offer, posts were prepared that achieved an excellent reach. The prize game was realized in cooperation with the Croatian National Tourist Board and the Osijek-Baranja County Tourist Board.
Predstojeći vikend će četrdesetak dionika ruralnog turizma iz Istre boraviti u Osijeku i Baranji. Istra je najuspješnija hrvatska turistička priča. Nakon što je turistički razvijena zapadna, a potom i istočna obala Istre, prije dvadesetak godina prionulo se poslu brendiranja unutrašnjosti – Zelene Istre kao turističke destinacije. Danas u unutrašnjosti Istre ima preko 200 agroturističkih punktova.In this way, for the first time in our country, the prejudice that tourism can be a significant revenue generator exclusively on the Adriatic coast, ie that the sea is the most important, or rather the only relevant tourist resource.The road to that was not easy. Often the initiators of this project were exposed to skepticism and sometimes ridicule. However, when the situation from twenty years ago is retrospectively compared with today’s, a significant shift is visible to the naked eye.Važnu ulogu u navedenom procesu odigrao je gospodin Selimir Ognjenović, vlasnik njemačkog tour operatora ID Riva tours, agencije koja je dugi niz godina imala najveći broj organiziranih dolazaka njemačkih turista u Hrvatsku. Gospodin Ognjenović je uvjeren da je sazrijelo vrijeme da se značajnije afirmira i kontinentalni turizam u Slavoniji & Baranji, te je stoga i inicirao posjet turističkih djelatnika iz unutrašnjosti Istre. Po njegovim riječima istok Hrvatske, odnosno Slavonija & Baranja imaju sve predispozicije da postanu snažna receptivna turistička regija. U navedenoj viziji snažno ga podupire i turistička agencija Maksi tours, te portal www.whattovisit.in koji će mu i pomagati pri operacionalizaciji navedenog plana.On Saturday, in the Ethnological Center of Baranja Heritage in Beli Manastir, a working meeting will be organized between Slavonian-Baranja and Istrian tourist stakeholders. The presentation of the destination of Baranja and the potential of joint action will be briefly presented by Mr. Matej Perkušić, director of the Tourist Board of Baranja and Mrs. Jasmina Krkić Poznić, owner of Maksi Tours and the portal www.whatovisit.in to promote the destination. After that, with the personal facilitation of Mr. Ognjenovic, we will try to exchange experiences. We believe that Istrians can also learn something from Baranja and Slavonians, and that this visit will be mutually beneficial.Istria leads in many ways, and is a kind of Croatian tourist destination success story. Ono što je uspješno zaživjelo u Istri treba implementirati i u Slavoniji, naravno uz obogaćivanje lokalnim specifičnostima. Kao primjer možemo navesti prošlogodišnji wine & walk održan na Banovom Brdu kojeg je organizirala turistička zajednica Baranje u okviru Gator festa. Ideju za navedenu manifestaciju direktor TZ Baranje, Matej Perkušić dobio je upravo tijekom jednog od studijskih posjeta Istri.Istrians have many years of experience and accumulated know how, te je sigurno da će navedeni posjet pospješiti transfer znanja i iskustava sa zapadnog u istočni kut Hrvatske, te pridonijeti afirmaciji Slavonije & Baranje kao cjelogodišnje destinacije kontinentalnog turizma koja svoju ponudu temelji na enogastronomiji, craft pivarstvu, prirodnoj, kulturnoj i industrijskoj (revitalizacija pustara) baštini, manifestacijama, razgranatoj mreži biciklističkih staza, aktivnom odmoru u prirodi kroz cikloturizam, birdwatching, fishing i različite oblike adrenalinskog, pustolovnog i robinzonskog turizma.Author: Mario Jukić / Photo: Dražen Lazić
Pinterest LinkedIn Share Email An obscure psychedelic drug could help people end their cravings for one of the most addictive drugs in the world, nicotine. New research has found that noribogaine reduces nicotine self-administration in rats who are addicted to the drug. The study was published online May 20 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology.Ibogaine is one of the psychoactive chemicals found in the root bark of the African Tabernanthe iboga plant, which has been used in the shamanic rituals of the Bwiti religion in Africa. Preliminary research has found ibogaine can help defeat addictions to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and other drugs — but scientists are still in the very early phases of understanding the drug’s effects and efficacy. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Noribogaine, the primary human metabolite of ibogaine, “displays a slow pharmacokinetic clearance rate in humans and was proposed to be responsible for many of the human in vivo effects seen after ibogaine therapy,” the researchers explained.The rats in the study were able to self-administer nicotine by pressing a lever in their cage. For two hours after receiving a dose of noribogaine, the rats reduced self-administration of nicotine by up to 64 percent. A group of rats used as controls, who could self-administer food rather than nicotine, also showed a moderate decrease in self-administration of food after receiving a high dose of noribogaine. “The findings indicate that noribogaine attenuates the reinforcing effects of nicotine,” the researchers said, adding that further studies to assess noribogaine’s efficacy and side effects are warranted.
Share Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Facebook Email Early adolescent girls lose friends for having sex and gain friends for “making out,” while their male peers lose friends for “making out” and gain friends for having sex, finds a new study that will be presented at the 110th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA).“In our sample of early adolescents, girls’ friendship networks shrink significantly after they have sex, whereas boys’ friendship networks expand significantly,” said Derek A. Kreager, the lead author of the study and an associate professor of sociology and criminology at Pennsylvania State University. “But what really surprised us was that ‘making out’ showed a pattern consistent with a strong reverse sexual double standard, such that girls who ‘make out’ without having sex see significant increases in friendships, and boys who engage in the same behavior see significant decreases in friendships.”The study relies on data from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) longitudinal study, which tracked two cohorts of youth from 28 rural communities in Iowa and Pennsylvania from 2003 to 2007 when they were in sixth to ninth grade and 11 to 16-years-old. Students were surveyed in five waves: in the Fall of sixth grade and in the Spring of sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. Kreager’s study focuses on 921 students in the second PROSPER cohort who completed in-home surveys that included measures of sexual behavior. Share on Twitter As part of the PROSPER study, students were asked to nominate their best or closest friends in the same grade. In order to identify changes in peer acceptance, Kreager and his colleagues considered how many friendship nominations participants received in each wave.According to Kreager, in waves where they reported having sex, on average, girls experienced a 45 percent decrease in peer acceptance and boys experienced an 88 percent increase. On the other hand, in waves where they reported “making out” without having sex, on average, girls experienced a 25 percent increase in peer acceptance, while boys experienced a 29 percent decrease in peer acceptance.“Our results are consistent with traditional gender scripts,” said Kreager. “Men and boys are expected to act on innate or strong sex drives to initiate heterosexual contacts for the purpose of sex rather than romance and pursue multiple sexual partnerships. In contrast, women and girls are expected to desire romance over sex, value monogamy, and ‘gatekeep’ male sexual advances within committed relationships. A sexual double standard then arises because women and girls who violate traditional sexual scripts and have casual and/or multiple sexual partnerships are socially stigmatized, whereas men and boys performing similar behaviors are rewarded for achieving masculine ideals.”Kreager found that girls, who defy traditional gender scripts by having sex, lose both male and female friendships. In contrast, boys who defy gender scripts by “making out” without having sex mainly lose male friends.“This pattern suggests that other boys are the peers that police social norms when it comes to masculinity, whereas girls receive strong messages about gender-appropriate sexual behavior from boys and girls,” Kreager explained. “It is not surprising that girls do not punish boys for ‘making out,’ as this behavior is rewarding for girls both socially and physically. However, there is somewhat of a paradox for boys stigmatizing girls who have sex because these boys are punishing girls for behavior that benefits boys both socially and sexually. We believe one reason for this is that only a small minority of boys have such sexual access, so those who do not have sex negatively define the girls who are having sex.”While recent research that shows men and women are held to different standards of sexual conduct largely focuses on college “hook-up culture,” by studying early adolescents, Kreager was able to show that sexual double standards also affect youth who have only just reached sexual maturity.“During early adolescence, peer evaluations of initial sexual behaviors and virginity loss are likely to have large and lasting impacts on later sexual adjustment,” Kreager noted.
Led by researchers from Providence Health Care (PHC), the Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHÉOS) at St. Paul’s Hospital and the School of Population and Public Health of the University of British Columbia (UBC), it’s the only clinical trial of its kind in the world.“Prior to SALOME, hydromorphone had never been evaluated as a substitution treatment for opioid dependence,” said SALOME Principal Investigator Dr. Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes. “Hydromorphone is a widely available licensed pain medication. Our study shows that hydromorphone is as effective as diacetylmorphine, providing a licensed alternative to treat severe opioid use disorder. Providing injectable opioids in specialized clinics under supervision ensures safety of both the patients and the community, and the provision of comprehensive care.”A total of 202 participants in Vancouver were randomized in a six-month double blind study to receive either injectable hydromorphone or injectable diacetylmorphine (DAM). The medication was administered at PHC’s Crosstown Clinic under the supervision of an interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, social workers and counselors.Key findings of the research include:Injectable hydromorphone is as effective as injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term street opioid users not currently benefitting from available treatments (estimated to be about 10 per cent of the opioid-dependent population not currently in treatment).Study participants on both medications reported far fewer days of street-heroin and other opioid use at six months (three to five days per month), compared to almost daily illicit opioid use prior to being enrolled in the study.Participants also reported a significant reduction in days of illegal activities (from an average of 14.1 days per month to less than four).Almost 80% were retained in treatment at six months.Hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine are both safe when taken in a clinical setting. Out of a total of 88,451 injections, there were 14 overdoses and 11 seizures, all successfully managed in the clinic. If these events had occurred in the street, the outcomes may have been fatal.“As diacetylmorphine is not presently available in many countries for political and/or regulatory reasons, hydromorphone has a significant advantage as a legal, licensed pain medication,” said Dr. Patricia Daly, Vancouver Coastal Health’s chief medical health officer. “While methadone and buprenorphine/naloxone are effective heroin addiction treatments for many people and should remain the first line responses, no single treatment is effective for all individuals. Every person with severe opioid use disorder left untreated is at high risk of serious illness and premature death.”SALOME started in late 2011 and concluded in late 2015. It is the follow-up study to the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI), North America’s first-ever clinical trial of diacetylmorphine/prescription heroin as an opioid agonist treatment medication. Share Pinterest LinkedIn Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email The results of the ground-breaking SALOME research, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Psychiatry, show chronic heroin addiction now has another effective treatment tool – hydromorphone, a licensed pain medication.“The findings of the SALOME researchers shine a new light on how we can help people with heroin addictions,” said Health Minister Terry Lake. “While methadone and suboxone are effective for many people with opioid addictions, there is a proportion of people who have not found success with these treatments. The SALOME study shows there are alternative treatments that may be able to help those who don’t respond to methadone and suboxone. This is very exciting research and could go a long way in helping those who need it.”SALOME, which stands for the Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness, found hydromorphone (HDM) to be as effective as diacetylmorphine (pharmaceutical-grade prescription heroin) for people who have not benefited from previous treatments, such as methadone or suboxone.
LinkedIn Email Share on Twitter As thousands of young adults prepare to leave the nest and attend college for the first time, parents may want to examine whether they are kind and supportive or hovering into helicopter parent territory.Parental involvement is crucial to a child’s development into an adult, but Florida State University researchers are finding that crossing the line between supportive and too involved could indirectly lead to issues such as depression and anxiety for young adults.“Helicopter parents are parents who are overly involved,” said FSU doctoral candidate Kayla Reed. “They mean everything with good intentions, but it often goes beyond supportive to intervening in the decisions of emerging adults.” Pinterest In the Journal of Child and Family Studies, Reed and Assistant Professor of Family and Child Sciences Mallory Lucier-Greer write that what has been called “helicopter parenting” can have a meaningful impact on how young adults see themselves and whether they can meet challenges or handle adverse situations.Though much attention has been paid to the notion of helicopter parenting, most of the studies have focused on adolescents. This study specifically looks at the emerging adults, or college-aged students who are navigating the waters of attending college.The paper will be published in an upcoming edition of the journal, but is available online now.Researchers surveyed more than 460 college students, ages 18 to 25, about how their mothers influenced their life decisions by asking the students how their mothers would respond to sample situations. They specifically looked at mothers because they are traditionally in the primary caregiver role.They also asked students to self-assess their abilities to persist in complicated tasks or adverse situations and then also rate their depression, life satisfaction, anxiety and physical health.Students who had mothers who allowed them more autonomy reported higher life satisfaction, physical health and self-efficacy. However, students with a so-called helicopter parent were more likely to report low levels of self-efficacy, or the ability to handle some tougher life tasks and decisions.In turn, those who reported low levels of self-efficacy also reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, and lower life satisfaction and physical health.“The way your parents interact with you has a lot to do with how you view yourself,” Lucier-Greer said. “If parents are simply being supportive, they are saying things like ‘you can manage your finances, you can pick out your classes.’ It changes if they are doing that all for you. I think there are good intentions behind those helicopter behaviors, but at the end of the day you need to foster your child’s development.”Sample scenarios given to students included questions about whether their mothers would encourage them to resolve a conflict with a roommate or friend on his or her own, or whether their mothers would actively intervene in the situation.Other sample questions probed whether mothers regularly asked students to text or call at given intervals and whether the mothers were controlling their diets.Researchers hope to continue this line of work in the future by expanding the work to look at both mothers and fathers and also young adults as they enter the workforce. Share on Facebook Share
Pinterest Share A complicated series of statistical analyses showed that rumination is indeed associated with all three included measures of psychopathology (depressive symptoms, eating dysfunction and diagnosis), and that the relationship is not dependent upon self-reflection. Correlations between twins demonstrated that all of these associations had a significant genetic component, though none were so complete as to exclude environmental factors. The most significant genetic influence was evident between rumination and depression, with the eating pathology association moderately impacted by genetics and the rumination-substance dependence link appearing to be mostly environmental in origin.The results of this study have several important implications. Primarily, they present examples of how the transdiagnostic approach can be used to effectively identify and examine relationships between psychopathologies and variables in ways that would not be possible using the traditional diagnostic method.“Our results support the conceptualization of rumination as a pattern of repetitive, self-directed thought that is a unique and specific risk factor for several forms of pathology,” Johnson and colleagues wrote in their study.Rumination was shown to have a significant association with several characteristics from across a range of psychopathologies. By including a genetic aspect to the analysis, the researchers were also able to demonstrate that the ratio of contributions to these associations by genetic and environmental factors can differ depending on the exact variables being measured (such as across diagnosis types).“As the first behavior genetic study to examine rumination as a transdiagnostic correlate of psychopathology, this study provides a strong foundation for exploring new avenues of research that could guide prevention and treatment efforts in individuals suffering from comorbid psychiatric disorders,” the researchers concluded. Traditional diagnostic approaches to psychopathologies, like those found in the DSMs, have focused on differences between disorders and resulted in an excessive number of therapies that are applicable to just a tiny percentage of the population. Transdiagnostic strategies on the other hand, take the opposite approach by emphasizing the similarities between groups to develop treatments that are useful to a wider range of people with mental health afflictions.A 2016 study published in Clinical Psychological Science utilized transdiagnostic theory to reveal that rumination, the act of obsessing on negative experiences, is correlated with a host of psychological conditions.The experiment, conducted by Daniel Johnson and colleagues, collected data from 744 participants (365 pairs of twins plus some singletons without their twin) using a self-reported survey. Twin study designs like this one have the advantage of providing a way to measure genetic influence. The surveys were designed to obtain values for rumination, self-reflection, depressive symptoms, eating pathology and psychiatric diagnoses. Self-reflection was included to control for its association with rumination. Depressive symptoms and eating pathology measurements were not based on official clinical diagnostic guidelines and did not require an existing diagnosis to be considered applicable. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email LinkedIn
Share on Twitter Share on Facebook LinkedIn Email Pinterest Thinking about the future helps overcome relationship conflicts, according to a University of Waterloo study just published online in Social Psychological and Personality Science.“When romantic partners argue over things like finances, jealousy, or other interpersonal issues, they tend to employ their current feelings as fuel for a heated argument. By envisioning their relationship in the future, people can shift the focus away from their current feelings and mitigate conflicts,” said Alex Huynh, a doctoral candidate in psychology and lead author of the study, which he published with Igor Grossmann from the University of Waterloo, and Daniel Yang from Yale University.Previous research has shown that taking a step back, and adopting a distanced fly-on-the-wall-type of perspective can be a positive strategy for reconciliation of interpersonal struggles. For example, prior research by Grossmann and colleagues suggests that people are able to reason more wisely over issues of infidelity when they are asked to do so from a third-person perspective. Huynh and his collaborators investigated whether similar benefits in reasoning and relationship well-being can be induced by simply stepping back and thinking about the future. Share Study participants were instructed to reflect on a recent conflict with a romantic partner or a close friend. One group of participants were then asked to describe how they would feel about the conflict one year in the future, while another group was asked to describe how they feel in the present.The team examined participants’ written responses through a text-analysis program for their use of pronouns – such as I, me, she, he. These choices of pronouns were used to capture participants’ focus on the feelings and behaviour of those involved in the conflict. Written responses were also examined for beneficial reasoning strategies – for example, forgiveness and reinterpreting the conflict more positively.The researchers found that thinking about the future affected both participants’ focus on their feelings, and their reasoning strategies. As a result, participants reported more positivity about their relationship altogether. In particular, when study participants extended their thinking about the relationship a year into the future, they were able to show more forgiveness and reinterpret the event in a more reasoned and positive light.The way people respond to conflict is an essential component for relationship maintenance, say the researchers.“Our study demonstrates that adopting a future-oriented perspective in the context of a relationship conflict – reflecting on how one might feel a year from now – may be a valuable coping tool for one’s psychological happiness and relationship well-being,” said Huynh.The research also has potential implications for understanding how prospection, or future-thinking, can be a beneficial strategy for a variety of conflicts people experience in their everyday lives.
Share “Belief in the American Dream appears tied to defending the status quo,” said Martin Day, an assistant professor of psychology at Memorial University of Newfoundland who began the research as a postdoctoral researcher at Princeton. “This research suggests that if people knew how unlikely it is to realize the dream, they may increase their demand for a better system.”Day conducted the research with Susan Fiske, Princeton’s Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and professor of psychology and public affairs. Together they are the authors of an article describing the research titled “Movin’ on Up? How Perceptions of Social Mobility Affect Our Willingness to Defend the System” that was published online Nov. 22, 2016, by the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science.“Now seems like a particularly important time to understand why people don’t support a system they see as fixed against them,” Fiske said. “We show that a system that doesn’t work for them causally undermines their support.”In the experiments, nearly 850 Americans were assigned to read one of two summary reports describing social mobility in the United States or to read neither. One report described a study on the relative ease with which Americans can move up and down the socioeconomic ladder. The other report took a similar form but highlighted a message of low social mobility. Participants then answered a series of questions designed to test their willingness to defend the current system.“We repeatedly found that those who were exposed to information that conveyed a sense of low social mobility reduced their desire to defend the system as compared to those exposed to information suggesting that social mobility is healthier,” Day said.Michael Kraus, an assistant professor of organizational behavior at Yale University who studies how people perceive and explain the attainment of social status, said the research demonstrates “that blindness about the actual lack of economic mobility in society can prevent Americans from realizing how unfair and unmeritocratic our current economic system is.”Shai Davidai, an assistant professor of psychology at the New School in New York who studies perceptions of and reactions to economic inequality, said the new research is interesting to consider in the context of recent political events in the United States.“While traditionally more conservative individuals tend to reject change and accept the status quo, this past election has been riddled with voices on the right calling for change and rejection of the prevailing forces,” he said. “Could this shift be explained by the drop in actual mobility rates in the previous decades? Are people’s subjective perceptions of mobility rates catching up with the actual decline in mobility in the U.S.?”Looking forward, Day said, the research can help influence future research by highlighting the importance of beliefs about social mobility in defending the status quo.“For example, it may be useful for future research to examine how perceived social mobility may relate to support for various programs and policies,” Day said. “More broadly, it may be useful to better understand how we can effectively reduce barriers that limit people’s opportunities to change their position in society.” Share on Twitter Is the American socioeconomic ladder sturdy, offering a good chance for people to move up and down? Or is it rickety, leaving most people stuck where they are?Psychologists at Princeton University and Memorial University of Newfoundland have found that how Americans view social mobility affects their willingness to defend the basic underpinnings of American society — such as social and economic policies, laws, and institutions.In a series of studies, the researchers found that people who think Americans have ample opportunities to change their place in society are more likely to defend the status quo than those who think people are mostly stuck in their current place. LinkedIn Email Pinterest Share on Facebook
Share on Facebook Pinterest Email Share on Twitter Researchers from the Higher School of Economics have shown how the level of perinatal testosterone, the sex hormone, impacts a person’s earnings in life.Prior research confirms that many skills and successes are linked to the widely known 2D:4D ratio, also knows as the digit ratio. This is the ratio of the index and ring fingers, and it is considered a reflection of the level of perinatal testosterone, the male hormone of the mother that acts on the development of the offspring during pregnancy.But research conducted by a team of scientists from HSE’s Centre for Institutional Studies (John Nye, Maria Yudkevich, Maxym Bruhanov, Ekaterina Kochergina, Ekaterina Orel, and Sergei Polyachenko) became the first study to use Russian data to show the link between the 2D:4D ratio and a person’s income. The study was published in the journal Economics and Human Biology. LinkedIn Share Regression analysis was carried out using the results of the 20th round of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). The number of observations in the base regressions totalled nearly 700 for men and 900 for women, and the age of the subjects varied between 25 and 60. A 2D:4D ratio was made for each participant using a specialised apparatus. In addition, the respondents, whose identities remained anonymous, were asked a number of questions concerning income and salaries.The results of the regression analysis showed a negative correlation between the income and 2D:4D ratios of women. In other words, the higher the salary, the lower the ratio. The effect was negative even when taking into account salary predictors such as gender, age, education level, job position, and the position’s economic sector. What is interesting is that this quantitative association is seen in men as well, though only after taking into account respondents’ level of education. This peculiarity, the authors note, is the subject of future research on broader, more multidisciplinary topics such as the connection between 2D:4D and academic success, as well as associations between education level and 2D:4D.Researchers are carefully studying income variation. In particular, they are analysing income predictors such as intellectual capabilities and psychological factors, as well as a person’s biological characteristics, notes one of the study’s authors, Maria Yudkevich. This is why 2D:4D research is truly a multidisciplinary topic.How the Digit Ratio is CalculatedThere are several ways to figure out the 2D:4D ratio. The above-mentioned research uses an electronic caliper. Respondents were asked to place their hands on a flat surface, palms facing upwards, and straighten out their fingers. A researcher then measured the length of the index and ring fingers on both hands (the paper notes that this measurement should be taken from the centre of the fold between the finger and palm up to the very tip of the finger so that the upper lip of the caliper does not press against the finger). Lastly, the interviewer recorded the results.Another method for taking the measurement is more hands-on, but offers practically the same level of reliability. Respondents’ palms are scanned and then the fingers measured using a photograph. The main advantage to this method is that secondary measurements can easily be taken. But when a large number of research subjects are participating, it can be quite expensive to equip each researcher with the special scanner.